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CCD Based Constant Deviation Spectrometer

(For Arc Emission & Absorption Measurements)


Model: HO-ED-S-0203

The apparatus uses CCD imaging instead of photographic silver halide films. It has become difficult to carry out silver halide film based spectroscopic experiments in class rooms due to the unavailability of consumables and hurdles in its processing. CCD imaging of the spectrum is a timely solution. Data acquisition is easy and fast. As most of the commercial spectroscopes are based on digital imaging, students get an exposure to the latest trends in spectroscopy.

Mercury is used as a standard element in most cases. Knowing the wavelength, corresponding to different spectral lines, elements can be judged. Hartmann's method is employed to determine the unknown wavelength.

If a transparent substance is placed between a continuous source and a spectrometer, the substance absorbs a certain part of the spectrum. Hence in the continuous spectrum of the source, a few dark lines or bands appear. This spectrum is called absorption spectrum of the substance. This method is useful for manufacturing as well as for academic experiments. Constant Deviation Spectrometer (Model No: HO-ED-S-0203) can be used for the study of spectral series viz. emission spectra of elements, absorption spectra of compounds, quantitative spectrum analysis etc.

When a substance is heated, electrons first absorb energy, go to a higher energy level and eventually fall to a lower level, by emitting photons. Every element emits a characteristic spectrum of its own. There are certain important and prominent spectral lines associated with each element. These lines are used to distinguish one element from another. In the experiment to determine an element, spectrum of standard known source is pictured first.


Experiment Examples

    To measure the wavelength of absorption bands of KMnO4 and calculate it’s Hartmann's constant.

The positions of spectral lines are usually measured in the direction of increasing wavelength. The constant d depends on scale setting, C on the range of spectrum and is a constant for the instrument. To determine these constant, we take three prominent lines of standard spectrum and equations are,

A    =    (λ2 – λ1) / (λ3 – λ1)

B    =    (d2 – d1) / (d3 – d1)

C    =    [ (λ2- λ1) (d0 – d1) (d02) ] / (d2 - d1)

d0    =    (B d3 - A d2) / (B - A)

λ0    =    (Aλ3 - B λ2) / (A- B)


Where, A, B, C, λ0, d0 are called Hartmann’s constants.
Using these Hartmann’s constants, we can calculate the absorption band wavelength as

λ    =    λ0 + [C / (d0 - d)]



    To find wavelength of prominent lines of the emission spectra of copper, iron and brass

The wave length of the corresponding lines of the arc spectrum can be calculated using the equation;

λ    =    λ0 + [C / (d0 - d)]

Specifications

    Design : Constant deviation 120 F

    Prism type : Pellin Broca (N-SF1)

    Refractive index : 1.7

    Wavelength range : 380 - 680nm

    Resolution : 0.1 nm

    Input : Micrometer controlled slit
Camera Specifications

    CCD sensor : line sensor

    Number of pixels : 3648

    Pixel size : 800 x 200 micron

    ADC resolution : 16 Bits

    Exposure time range : 0.1ms - 6,500ms

    Frame rate : Upto 138 scans / second

    Interface : USB 2.0

    Compatibility : Windows 7 or higher
Features

    Modern, user friendly and precision design

    Emission and absorption spectra can be observed

    CCD imaging system

    High-quality optics produce sharp and clear spectra
Scope of Supply


    Constant Deviation Spectrometer

Model No: ED-S-0203-CDS
Quantity
:
1 no.

(Specification is as per above)
Constant Deviation Spectrometer

    Metal Arc Stand

Model No: ED-S-0203-MAS
Substance Holder
:
Ceramic
Arc Cavity
:
0 - 25 mm
Quantity
:
1 no.
Metal Arc Stand

    Copper, Iron, Brass Rods

Model No: ED-S-0203-CIBR
Length
:
55 mm
Diameter
:
8 mm
Quantity
:
10 nos. Each
Copper, Iron, Brass Rods

    Metal Arc Power supply

Model No: ED-S-0203-MAPS
Input
:
230V, 50 Hz
Output
:
0 - 100V, 0 - 10A
Quantity
:
1 no.
Metal Arc Power supply

    Mercury Vapor Lamp with Power Supply

Model No: ED-S-0203-MLPS
Input
:
230V, 50 Hz
Output
:
4KV, 30mA
Quantity
:
1 no.
Mercury Vapor Lamp with Power Supply

    Incandescent Lamp

Model No: ED-S-0203-IL
Input
:
230V, 50 Hz
Output
:
25 Watts
Quantity
:
1 no.
Incandescent Lamp

    CCD Camera

Model No: ED-S-0203-CCDC
Resolution
:
Selectable (320 - 1280 pixels)
Connectivity
:
USB 2.0
Quantity
:
1 no.
CCD Camera

    Accessories

Cuvette
KMnO4 Powder
Grinding File
Software CD
Instruction Manual
Net Book (Optional)

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