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Zeeman Effect Apparatus

Model: HO-ED-S-04A

Holmarc's Zeeman Effect Apparatus (Model No : HO-ED-S-04A) is designed for the determination of e/m ratio, which requires knowledge in optics,mechanics, electromagnetism, modern physics and mathematics. Traditional Zeeman effect apparatus needs more skills in operation and measurement. With it’s new and integrated design, this device is easier to setup and operate so that students can lay focus on understanding the principles and theories involved.

A low-pressure mercury lamp is placed inside a variable current electromagnet. Light passes through a narrow-band interference filter (or Dye based filter), centered around the desired wavelength and enters the Fabry - Perot etalon. This device consists of two reflective parallel plates which serve to transmit strong incoming radiation at different orders of wavelength. Small tilting knobs allow precise and careful adjustments of the plate.

The significant difference in our setup is in the imaging system used for viewing and recording the interference patterns. We use USB 2.0 camera, which can be directly connected to the PC to monitor the fringe pattern and save desired pictures. This makes the alignment of the optics much easier and eliminates the need for photographic processing. The Fabry-Perot etalon is the heart of the apparatus which allows us to detect small shifts in wavelengths of light emitted from the source. Basically, it is a pair of parallel, highly reflective mirrors separated by a distance.



Experiment Examples

This experiment consist of two parts :

    To perform qualitative observations of the Zeeman effect including :

1.    Observing the line triplet for the normal transverse Zeeman Effect

The normal Zeeman Effect is characterized by a triplet splitting of the spectral line if it is observed transversally. The middle component remains at the position of the original line. The two others are shifted by the same range towards higher and lower wavelengths, respectively



    To perform quantitative measurements on the normal Zeeman effect including :

1.    To find Spacing of the etalon

An etalon is an optical interferometer, for finding the spacing of the etalon we measure the radius of the circular fringes using Holmarc’s image analysis software ‘Image J’.


Spacing of the etalon    t    =    nD2λ    /    χn2


Where
D    =    Distance between Etalon and the camera
n    =    is the order of rings
λ    =    wavelength of the light used
χn    =    difference in the radius of two consecutive rings



2.    Verification of the magnetic moment constant Bohr magneton ( μ )

Bohr magneton

µB    =    hc ( ( Δv ̅ ) / 2 )    /    B

Where
( Δv ̅ ) / 2    is the difference in wave numbers of one of the σ-lines with respect to the central lines
h    =    Planck’s constant
c    =    Speed of light
B    =    Magnetic flux density



3.    Analysis of Planck's constant ( h ) and speed of light( c ) using Zeeman Effect

Planck’s constant, h    =    ( µB / c )  .  2B    /    ( Δv ̅ )


Speed of light, c    =    ( µB / h )  .  2B    /    ( Δv ̅ )



4.    Calibration of the magnetic field

A gauss meter is used for the calibration of magnetic field. Introduce the gauss meter probe between the poles of electromagnet. Vary the current from zero up to its maximum value and note the corresponding field strength from gauss meter at different intervals.



Gaussmeter Specifications

    Range    :    0 - 20 KG

    Resolution    :    10 gauss

    Accuracy    :    +/- 0.5%

    Display    :    3 ½ digit, 7 segment LED

    Power    :    220V +/- 10%, 50Hz

    Transducer    :    Hall probe - In As
Dichroic Green Filter Specification

    Type    :    Additive

    Color    :    Green

    Dimensions    :    50 mm x 50 mm

    Clear aperture (%)    :    ≥ 85

    Thickness (mm)    :    2 nominal

    Surface quality    :    80 - 50

    Angle of incidence (°)    :    0

    Substrate    :    Borofloat
Related Topics

    Bohr's atomic model

    Bohr magneton

    Fabry - Perot interferometer

    Quantization of energy levels

    Interference of electromagnetic waves
Scope of Supply


    Rail Based Platform

Model No: ED-S-04A-RBP
Length
:
500 mm
Material
:
Black anodized Aluminum alloy
Quantity
:
1 no.
Rail Based Platform

    IR Filter with Mount

Model No: ED-S-04A-IRFM
Dimension
:
50 x 50 mm
Substrate
:
Borofloat
Quantity
:
1 no.
IR Filter with Mount

    Green Filter with Mount

Model No: ED-S-04A-GFM
Dimension
:
50 x 50 mm
Substrate
:
Borofloat
Quantity
:
1 no.
Green Filter with Mount

    Polarizer with Variable Aperture

Model No: ED-S-04A-PVA
Material
:
Sheet polarizer
Rotation
:
360 degree
Quantity
:
1 no.
Polarizer with Variable Aperture

    Fabri-Perot Etalon with Mount

Model No: ED-S-04A-FPEM
Aperture
:
30 mm
Separation of plates
:
3 - 4 mm
R / T ratio
:
85 / 15
Quantity
:
1 no.
Fabri-Perot Etalon with Mount

    Camera Lens Assembly

Model No: ED-S-04A-CLA
Focal length
:
65 mm
Quantity
:
1 no.
Camera Lens Assembly

    CCD Camera

Model No: ED-S-04A-CCDC
Resolution
:
Selectable (320-1280 pixels)
Connectivity
:
USB 2.0
Quantity
:
1 no.
CCD Camera

    Electromegnet

Model No: ED-S-04A-EM
Max magnetic field
:
1.8 Tesla (at 10mm pole space)
Quantity
:
1 no.
Electromegnet

    Electromagnet Power Supply

Model No: ED-S-04A-EMPS
Output Power
:
40 V DC , 0 - 3.5 A
Quantity
:
1 no.
Electromagnet Power Supply

    Digital Gauss Meter

Model No: ED-S-04A-DGM
Range
:
0 - 20 Kg
Transducer
:
In As
Quantity
:
1 no.
Digital Gauss Meter

    Gauss Probe Holder with Mount

Model No: ED-S-04A-GPHM
Height
:
100 - 150 mm
Material
:
Anodized Aluminium Alloy
Quantity
:
1 no.
Gauss Probe Holder with Mount

    Mercury Vapor Lamp with Power Supply

Model No: ED-S-04A-MVPS
Power supply
:
230V 50 Hz
Output
:
4 KV, 30 mA
Quantity
:
1 no.
Mercury Vapor Lamp with Power Supply

    Dust Protecting Cover with magnetic locks

Model No: ED-S-04A-DCML
Material
:
PMMA
Dimension
:
450 x 150 x 165 mm
Quantity
:
1 no.
Dust Protecting Cover with magnetic locks

    Accessories

Allen Key
User Manual

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