Holmarc's Geometrical Optics Experiment Apparatus (Model No. HO-ED-O-02) is developed for general physics education in universities and colleges. The compact and fully integrated design makes Holmarc's Geometrical Optics Experiment Apparatus an ultimate tool to study the basics of optics.
It includes 1500mm long graduated optical bench with carriers. The optical components such as lenses, mirrors, etc. are fixed to the carriers using suitable mounts so that these can be fixed anywhere on the rail.
Students can easily adjust positions of optical devices using the sliding carriers. All the accessories are easy to be mounted and adjusted. The apparatus includes set of lenses, concave/convex mirrors, light sources like laser, LED etc. The use of diode laser as light source makes the ray path visible and helps students to assimilate the basics easily.
i. Parallel Beam Method
For making the beam parallel, place a concave lens followed by a convex lens in front of the laser. Adjust the position of the convex lens to get a parallel beam and its diameter is same as the diameter of the convex lens throughout. This gives the parallel beam setup.
ii. U-V Method
The relation between u, v and f for a convex lens / concave mirror is
1/v + 1/u = 1/f
u and v is the object distance and image distance respectively; and f is the focal length. Using the proper sign convention, we can find the relation for the focal length of the concave lens / convex mirror.
The intensity of the light decreases with an increase in the distance between light source and detector.
I is the intensity and d is the distance between the source and the detector.
The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
According to Snell's law,
n = sin i / sin r
i is the angle of incidence, r is the angle of refraction and n is the refractive index of the medium.
A laser beam expander is designed to either decrease the laser's beam spot size at large distances or produce a larger collimated output laser beam.
A collimator is a device that narrows a beam of particles or waves.
A simple magnifier is called a simple microscope. It's a convex lens. Magnification is given by,
M = - v / u
v is the image distance and u is the object distance.
Compound microscope consist of two lenses one as objective and other as eye piece.
Fig. Inverse Square Law
Fig. Schematic Diagram